Chapter 1 - America's Freedom Faith and The Cold War

rights and processes that underlie the American Revolution and its constitutional enterprise. The ten rights are stated in a way that they could be supplemented with future amendments and/or by Supreme Court decisions to include ever more citizens over the course of American history. Thus these rights would later include the prohibition of slavery, legalization of women’s voting rights, and abolishment of any discrimination on grounds of race, religion, gender, etc. The Bill of Rights includes the following rights:
[1] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
[2] A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
[3] No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
[4] The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures . . .
[5] . . . nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
[6] . . . the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury, . . . to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
[7] . . . the right of trial by jury [and rights of further judicial review] . . .
[8] Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
[9] The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
[10] The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.7
Subsequent Amendments. Of the subsequent amendments to the U.S. Constitution, ratified by the present time (the last one, Amendment 27, was ratified in 1992), those that particularly expanded Americans’ civil rights and freedoms after the Civil War and beyond are cited below:
[13] Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. . . . [Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, ratified December 6, 1865]
[14] . . . No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. . . . [Passed June 13, 1866, ratified July 9, 1868]
[15] The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude. . . . [Passed February 26, 1869, ratified February 3, 1870]
[19] The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. [Passed June 4, 1919, ratified August 18, 1920]
[22] No person shall be elected to the office the President more than twice. . . . [Passed March 21, 1947, ratified March 29, 1961]
[26] The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. [Passed March 23, 1971, ratified July 1, 1971]8
[Book pg. 8]