Chapter 2 – Marxism-Leninism Communist Roots of the Cold War to the Eve of the Second World War—1848 to 1939

The historical facts of the long Cold War’s ideological roots and early course leave no doubt that the global conflict began with Karl Marx’s mid-nineteenth century’s pseudo-scientific theories of History and Communism, his irreconcilable opposition to democratic and peaceful reform, and his revolutionary blueprint as implemented by his disciple Vladimir Lenin, and Lenin’s Soviet successors in their creation of the totalitarian Communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Marx and Lenin—Revolution against Democratic Reform. Marx saw History (with a capital H) as a ‘“dialectical materialist” process with “iron laws” grounded in “class warfare.” His proposed revolutionary “dictatorship of the proletariat” would be controlled by an initial “socialist,” then finally “Communist,” society that would create a utopian “new man.” Lenin’s insistence on total revolutionary power drew on Marx’s intolerance of any pluralistic, democratic or peaceful paths to human progress. Such paths included parliaments, labor unions, humanitarian religious faiths, and institutions and laws protecting individual human rights. Since both Marx and Lenin saw themselves as infallible prophets and their blueprints as “scientific,” they treated all dissidents and critics as heretics and betrayers of their revolution. Thus Lenin saw the chief enemies of his Bolshevik “vanguard” movement not in Russia’s “capitalists,” but in conservative reformers like Peter Stolypin and left-of-center human rights lawyer Alexander Kerensky and his Social Democratic Party. During the First World War Lenin collaborated from exile with Imperial Germany to undermine Russia’s war effort even as German armies occupied Eastern Europe and neared Russia’s capital, Petrograd. He continued his collaboration even after a Russian Provisional Government coalition led by Kerensky and his party forced the Czar’s
[Book pg. 19]