Part I -- ROOTS AND STRATEGIES OF THE COLD WAR BEFORE REAGAN

Chapter 2 – Marxism-Leninism Communist Roots of the Cold War to the Eve of the Second World War—1848 to 1939

What we demand in this war . . . is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are in effect partners. . . .
 
[Specific Points Include the Following] Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at. . . . A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims . . . [including] the interests of the populations concerned. . . . The evacuation of all Russian territory . . . and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations . . . [and] assistance also of every kind. (headings added)5
Lenin’s Rationalizations and Precursor of the Hitler-Stalin Pact. In agreeing to harsh German peace terms at Brest-Litovsk, Lenin may have reasoned that his betrayal of Russians and East European peoples was justified by Russian war-weariness. He may even have justified his decision in the hope that it might save Petrograd, although in reality, the treaty facilitated a likely potential attack route on the Russian capital for the nearby German forces. It is more likely that Lenin most wanted all Russian troops under Soviet control to be used for the coming civil war, and that the Brest-Litovsk treaty would ease and enable the transfer of most of the German divisions into battle on the war’s Western Front. If the German forces arrived there in time for an offensive before large U.S. forces could engage, the ensuing warfare would surely end in the death throes of the European nations. According to Marxist-Leninist theory, such a “crisis of capitalism” and of capitalist “imperialism” would bring Communist revolutions and produce Communist regimes throughout Western Europe on the path to a historically-ordained global victory for Communism. Lenin’s Brest-Litovsk agreement eerily foreshadowed the Hitler-Stalin Pact of August 23, 1939 (Chapter 3) that was also rationalized as a defense of a weak Russia and as contributing to the fratricidal destruction of “capitalist” nations. In fact, the Pact, like Lenin’s Brest-Litovsk Treaty, unleashed a wider war, in this case, the Second World War with a dual invasion of Poland by Nazi and Soviet armies.
 
6. The End of the First World War: America Saves the Western Allies, Eastern Europe, and (Soviet) Russia from German Victory—1918
For Lenin and his Imperial German allies, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was essential in guaranteeing Russia’s withdrawal from the war. This development gave Lenin the freedom to concentrate Soviet military and police power on crushing his domestic opposition, even if it also meant abandoning Russian territory and Russia’s democratic Western allies on the Great War’s Western Front. He also freed the great bulk of German forces to move to the Western Front in an attempt to overwhelm the French and British troops before the arrival of American forces.
 
American Troops Save the Western Allies and Win the War. Fortunately for the Western democracies, Lenin’s destructive hopes were forestalled as U.S. troops arrived in France in large numbers beginning in April 1918. By June 1918, they were heavily engaged at Belleau Woods and other battlegrounds, even as German troops and equipment redeployed from Russia were arriving in force at the front. Without the dramatic boost that America’s commitment brought to the Allied cause, Lenin’s coup of November 1917, his immediate orders for a Russian cease fire, and his Brest-Litovsk Treaty of 1918 would surely have assured German military victory, or protracted warfare, with Germany far less inclined toward an armistice and peace negotiations with the Western Allies.
 
American Forces and Military and Economic Aid Assure Soviet Survival. In addition to saving the beleaguered Western democracies, the massive U.S. combat role in France also proved critical to the survival of the Soviet Union itself (see Chapter 3 on some parallels in the Second World War). This is a Soviet historical reality of the First World War and the Soviet founding evaded by Soviet and post-Soviet Russian historians and still ignored by most Western academics, who speak only of U.S. “intervention” in Soviet Russia or Soviet fears of “encirclement” by democratic Western allies. Yet, it is beyond doubt that without America’s supplies both to the Western Allies and also to Russia, (see below) in addition to America’s full-scale entry with combat forces into the war to turn the tide on the Western Front, Imperial Germany would have secured major military gains on both fronts. German military and political leaders would then almost certainly not have suffered the domestic upheavals of November 9, 1918 that led to the forced abdication of Germany’s emperor, Wilhelm II, and the acceptance of a general German-Allied armistice on November 11, 1918. Such a turn of events would
 
[Book pg. 32]

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