Chapter 2 – Marxism-Leninism Communist Roots of the Cold War to the Eve of the Second World War—1848 to 1939

likely have produced different outcomes at the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919 (see section below) that freed Soviet Russia (and Eastern Europe) from German occupation and also imposed harsh peace terms on Germany. America also helped assure Soviet survival by providing enormous quantities of food in the Soviet Union’s civil war period of 1919–1921, as reviewed below.
7. Lenin’s Totalitarian Template, Cheka Terror, Civil War, and the Rapallo Treaty—1917 to 1922
Lenin’s and his successors’ claims to a glorious Russian “revolution” of October/November 1917 reject the truth that his was an anti-democratic coup against the coalition government that in Russia’s “March Revolution” had forced the abdication of the authoritarian Czar six months earlier and set Russia on a progressive democratic path. Lenin’s real revolution occurred in the next months as he used deception, state terror, and bitter warfare at home and abroad to betray the Russian people’s democratic hopes, betray Russia’s democratic allies, impose a totalitarian Marxist-Leninist police state, and threaten Russia’s neighbors and the world in the name of Soviet Communism.
Lenin’s Totalitarian Blueprint and Terror. Following his November 1917 coup, Lenin radicalized Russia with decrees (as a Red Czar) and used unprecedented state terror to reverse the Russian Provisional Government’s previous Russian reforms and to implement a totalitarian Marxist-Leninist blueprint. The new Soviet Communist Party regime centered on a “dictatorship of the proletariat,” with Lenin as its god-like leader and administered through an all-powerful Communist Party monopoly of political, military, economic, legal and social power. These actions were centered on the elimination of all elements identified by the regime as “counter-revolutionary” enemies or independents. On January 19, 1918, Lenin formally shut down the Provisional Government’s reformist Constituent Assembly and coalition—a situation similar to Hitler’s shut-down of the democratic German Reichstag and that body’s transformation into a monolithic Nazi Party assembly governed by Fuehrer decrees and unanimous votes. Even prior to the Constituent Assembly’s dismantling, Lenin established in December 1917 a new terror-spreading armed secret police organization, the Cheka (an abbreviated term for “Emergency Commission” in Russian). He also utilized the armed Red Guard and special (Red Army) units led by Lenin loyalists and he encadred “political commissars” that, in the Soviet Union’s first military decree, were assigned to each military unit with revolutionary political authority equal to the military authority of each unit’s commander. Lenin’s totalitarian steps were instituted before Benito Mussolini’s authoritarian “fascist” state in 1922, and became a model for the totalitarian state terror enforced by Hitler through his Gestapo and SS organizations after 1933.
Cheka Terror. A paragraph on the Cheka from David Bullock’s The Russian Civil War 1918–22 (2008) graphically illustrates the exceptional force and brutality of this sinister precursor of the Soviet NKVD and KGB. Thus:
The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-revolution and Sabotage, . . . the Cheka, had formed in December 1917. The first Cheka combat detachment of 1,000 troops supplemented the field agents in March 1918. This force consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery, machine guns and a section of armoured cars. . . . Felix ‘Iron Felix’ Dzerzhinsky . . . commanded all Cheka franchises. Their motto, ‘Shield and Sword of the Revolution’, describes their purpose. . . . Before grueling assignments, the Cheka distributed extra rations of liquor to their operatives and turned a blind eye to cocaine. . . . Local Cheka establishments dotted across Russia and the Ukraine, in fact, they were noted for particular specializations. . . . At Kremenchug the clergy were impaled on stakes, hand saws were driven through bones at Tsaritsyn, victims were scalped at Kharkov, and crucifixion or stoning was de rigeuer at Ekaterinoslav. . . . At Orel in winter, humans were turned, progressively into virtual statues of ice. At each locale, women prisoners could expect to be assaulted and raped.6
Communism’s Totalitarian Dialectic. Communism and Communist regimes either impose or ban beliefs and actions. The Soviet state’s polarized Marxist-Leninist “dialectic” enforced by the Red Army and Cheka left no space for dialogue or choice for citizens and civil society. Marx, Lenin, and their successors and counterparts claimed to speak infallibly for history, progress, justice, science, and “the people.” Like Hitler later, Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot and other Communist totalitarian leaders saw themselves, and were treated, as demigods who could do as they wanted. Their leadership and government was not of, by, or for the people on the basis
[Book pg. 33]