Part I -- ROOTS AND STRATEGIES OF THE COLD WAR BEFORE REAGAN

Chapter 2 – Marxism-Leninism Communist Roots of the Cold War to the Eve of the Second World War—1848 to 1939

to be collectively molded by a monopolistic state that tolerated no dissent and relied on myth, illusion, and “politically correct” collectivist “group think” to rationalize its secrecy and terror. George Orwell (Homage to Catalonia, Animal Farm, and 1984), Arthur Koestler (Darkness at Noon), Albert Camus (The Rebel) and Soviet dissident writers like Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn whose works were long banned by the Kremlin, are among those who powerfully portrayed this sad reality.
 
Start and Nature of the Cold War Conflict. The true believers in this Communist faith began their Cold War against freedom long before the late 1940s when the Western democracies belatedly woke up to the violations of international agreements by Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union in their violent subjugation of captive nations behind an Iron Curtain of Communism. Nor did the Cold War begin with Vladimir Lenin in Russia in November 1917, as argued by some Western authors who consider Marx and Lenin to be quite different in their social and political ideologies. The Cold War demonstrably began in the mid-nineteenth century with Karl Marx’s anti-humanitarian, anti-democratic theories on human nature and history and his intractable dogmatic battles against any socialists or other reformers committed to political pluralism and peaceful democratic reform. The evidence is overwhelming that leaders like Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Kim il-Sung, Pol Pot, and Fidel Castro were no aberrations of “Marxism”, but that their acts of violent revolution, totalitarian dictatorship, state terror, and international subversion marked a consistent ideological path.
 
2. Marx and Marxist Dictatorship: Dialectical Materialism, Manifesto, and Critique of Gotha Program
 
The long Cold War was launched with a toxic ideological mix of nineteenth-century German and French philosophical abstractions and Russian exaltation of absolute state power. This mix was expressed in views of history, man, and society assembled into a pseudo-scientific Marxist-Leninist blueprint for a future totalitarian dictatorship with an all-powerful vanguard party elite (a privileged new class) directing a monopoly of state-owned and centrally controlled political, economic, and cultural power. This system was intrinsically tyrannical and corrupt, not based on rule of, by, and for the people, but dependent on monopoly, violence, deception, subversion, and rejection of modern Western civil ideals. The new Communist class would seize, maintain and impose power at home and abroad unconstrained by ideals of individual human rights, democratic parliaments and constitutions, religious conscience, pluralistic civil society, or the pursuit of freedom, justice and peace.
 
Karl Marx’s Anti-Humanitarian and Anti-Democratic Battles. Communists began their warfare in the mid-nineteenth century with the prophecies and prescriptions of two Germans, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Marx’s Communist Manifesto was published (in German) in 1848 as a global call to arms in the name of Marx’s philosophy of human nature, violent political/economic ideology, and revolutionary lessons in part inspired by that year’s uprising by radicals. Marx’s subsequent protracted theoretical battles against Europe’s leading reform-minded democratic socialist opponents were most notably encapsulated in Marx’s Critique of the Gotha Program, published in a letter in 1872, a year after the failure of the radical Paris Commune in France, and almost totally ignored by historians. From these two political blueprints reviewed below, far more than from his economics-oriented Das Kapital, Marx’s determinative political theory and program led directly to Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Mao, and other Communist leaders’ horrific actions on behalf of Marxist-Leninist doctrine and the Communist cause.
 
Marx and German Ideology. Karl Marx was born on May 18, 1818 in Trier, Germany, an ancient city established by the Romans. During Marx’s time, it was an outlier of the German Kingdom of Prussia near the border with France. Marx came from a line of scholars and rabbis, his father officially converted to Christianity when Marx was six years old. Marx himself regarded all religions, including Catholicism, Lutheran Protestantism, and Judaism as cultural superstructures and “counter-revolutionary” myths. For Marx, these traditional religions were always an “opiate of the masses” that must be eliminated and replaced by Marx’s purportedly scientific philosophy of atheism and his own secular faith in his Communist blueprint as blessed by the “dialectic” of History with a capital “H.” In line with many other European intellectuals of his day, Marx presented himself as a forward-looking secular philosopher and empirical social scientist on the cutting edge of intellectual endeavor. On closer study, however, he was a pseudo-scientific theorist caught up in nineteenth-century
 
[Book pg. 22]

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