Chapter 3 - The Cold War Builds From the Hitler-Stalin Pact to the Iron Curtain 1939 to 1950

the end of the war while working closely with Soviet military and civilian leaders. Deane’s book The Strange Alliance: The Story of Our Efforts at Wartime Co-operation with Russia published in 1946 presents three-hundred pages of now-forgotten history. Deane summarizes the extraordinary magnitude of U.S. aid as follows:

In the period from October 1, 1941 to May 31, 1945, there were 2,660 ships sent to Russia carrying a total of 16,529,791 tons of supplies. Of this total, 15,234,791 long tons arrived in Russia, the difference being accounted for by the fact that fifty-two of the ships were diverted to the United Kingdom and seventy-seven ships were lost as a result of enemy action. . . . We delivered 427,284 trucks, 13,303 combat vehicles, 35,170 motorcycles, and 2,328 ordnance service vehicles.3

Deane also recounts his field trips to the Soviet-German front, notwithstanding Soviet obstacles put in the way of direct US deliveries to the field, and many Soviet rejections of U.S. requests for permission to use Soviet territory as launch or return sites for U.S. bombers engaged in long-range strikes against Axis territory.

A Later U.S. Report and a Wartime Soviet Report on U.S. Aid. A U.S. report referenced earlier in this chapter and published in 1965 on World War II Historical Facts versus Communist Myths indicates that, when shipments began in 1941, the Allies suffered heavy losses to their convoys from German submarines, but that the losses decreased over the following months. Deliveries included the following shipments:

From October 1941 to May 1945, 2,660 ships were sent to Russia carrying a total of 16,529,791 tons of supplies. The U.S. delivered 427,284 trucks, 13,303 combat vehicles, 35,170 motorcycles, and 2,328 ordnance service vehicles, . . . 2.6 million tons of petroleum products, 4.5 tons of food-stuffs, over 13,000 railroad cars including 1,900 steam locomotives, 66 diesel locomotives, 9,920 flat cars, 1,000 dump cars, 120 tank cars, and 35 heavy machinery cars, all of which were constructed to fit the special railroad gauge used in the U.S.S.R. Other items sent included over $1 billion worth of machinery and industrial equipment, spares for aircraft, surface vehicles and weapons and vast quantities of medical supplies and quartermaster items such as clothing, shoes, and bedding.4

The 1965 U.S. report also cites an official report by the USSR Commissariat for Foreign Trade Report of June 11, 1944 on war supplies provided by the Western Allies (from October 1941 to April 1, 1944, i.e., not counting the last year of large continuing U.S. deliveries.) The cited Soviet report titled “Deliveries of Armaments, Strategic Raw Materials, Industrial Equipment, and Foodstuffs by the United States, Great Britain, and Canada” provides the following data:

6,430 aircraft (plus 2,442 aircraft from U.S. and British obligation); 3,734 tanks, 10 minesweepers, 12 large submarine chasers, 82 E-boats and small sub-chasers, 206,771 lorries (trucks), 5,397 other military mechanized transport vehicles, 17,017 motorcycles, 3,168 AA guns; 22.2 million shells, 991.4 million cartridges; 87,999 tons of gunpowder; 130,000 tons of Toluol, Trinitrotulo, and Ammonite; 1.2 million kilometers of telephone wire; 245,000 telephones; 5.5 million Army boots; 22.8 yards of Army cloth; 2 million automobile tires; 476,000 tons of high octane aviation spirit; 99,000 tons of aluminum and duralumin; 1.16 million tons of steel and steel goods (including 246,000 tons of rails and ties; $257.2 million worth of various industrial equipment including power plant equipment to a total capacity of 2,888,000 kilowatts; equipment for 4 oil refineries, 1 aluminum rolling mill, 4,138 ship engines with total of 1.76 million horsepower; 20,380 metal cutting lathes; 2,718 presses and hammers; 534 cranes; 209 excavators; 241 railway locomotives, 1,154 platforms; 80 tank cars for acid transport; 2.2 million tons of food.5

British Shipments. The U.S. report also cites the Soviet Commissariat’s report on aid from Great Britain to the Soviet Union in the period June 22, 1941 to April 1944 as including: 3,384 planes (plus 2,442 from the U.S. as part of British obligation); 4,292 tanks, 12 minesweepers; 5,239 lorries and armored troop carriers; 562 AA guns; 548 anti-tank guns; 17 million shells; 290 million cartridges; 17.3 tons of gunpowder; 214 radio installations (for direction of artillery); 116 anti-submarine detection devices; and 138,200 tons of food.6

Canadian Shipments. The 1965 U.S. report cites the total of Canadian shipments from June 1, 1943 to April 20, 1944 (earlier shipments counted as part of the British total) as 450,000 tons of matériel, including: 842 armored troop carriers; 2,569 trucks; 827,000 shells; 34.8 million cartridges; 5,000 tons of gunpowder; 36,300 tons of aluminum and other goods.7

[Book pg. 53]