PART IV -- REAGAN'S FREEDOM STRATEGY AGAINST SOVIET IMPERIALISM, ESPIONAGE, AND "ACTIVE MEASURES' INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS

Chapter 16 - Reagan’s Freedom Strategy: Key Freedom Speeches, Public Diplomacy, Supporting Anti-Communist Resistance

foreign military sales, as well as readiness to use U.S. military forces where necessary to protect vital interests and support endangered Allies and friends. U.S. policy must also involve diplomatic initiatives to promote resolution of regional crises vulnerable to Soviet exploitation and an appropriate mixture of economic assistance programs and private sector initiatives for Third World countries. (heading added)8

Exploiting Soviet Imperial Vulnerabilities. NSDD 75 points to a number of important weaknesses and vulnerabilities within the Soviet empire to be exploited as U.S. policies were directed to encourage Soviet allies to distance themselves from Moscow in foreign policy and to move toward democratization domestically, including in:

[Eastern Europe] to loosen Moscow’s hold on the region while promoting the cause of human rights . . .

[Afghanistan] to keep the maximum pressure on Moscow for withdrawal . . .

[Cuba] take strong countermeasures to affect the political/military impact of Soviet arms deliveries . . . provide economic and military assistance to states in Central America and the Caribbean basin threatened by Cuban destabilizing activities . . . reduce the Cuban presence and influence in southern Africa . . . achieve a Cuban withdrawal from Angola . . .

[Soviet Third World Activities] . . . limit the destabilizing activities of Soviet Third World allies and clients . . . undermine existing [Soviet] links . . . encourage democratic movements . . .

[China] China continues to support U.S. efforts to strengthen the world’s defenses against Soviet expansionism. . . .

[Yugoslavia] It is U.S. policy to support the independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Yugoslavia. (headings added)9

Two NSC Directives on U.S. Diplomacy Staffing and Broadcasting—June, July 1982. An early first-term directive in support of U.S. diplomacy, NSDD 38—Staffing at U.S. Diplomatic Missions, issued on June 2, 1982, emphasizes the important role of U.S. Chiefs of Mission, normally ambassadors, in determining the appropriateness of staff size, composition, and mandates for the missions they head (i.e., not ceding on-the-spot judgments to the Department of State bureaucracy in Washington D.C.).

International Broadcasting. A second directive, NSDD 45—U.S. International Broadcasting, issued on July 15, 1982, highlights invigorated U.S. government-funded electronic media as a U.S. policy instrument of vital importance to the nation and to the broad objectives of U.S. foreign and national security policy. Thus:

International broadcasting constitutes an important instrument of the national security policy of the United States. Improvement in the programming and technical quality of US international broadcasting is a requirement of the highest priority. Allocation of budgetary and other resources required to implement the improvements authorized by this memorandum shall be accorded the same priority as in the case of other programs deemed vital to the national security.
The Voice of America (VOA) and the International Communication Agency will remain the official broadcasting voice of the U.S. government. . . .

VOA should take steps to strengthen existing mechanisms for relating program content to current US foreign and national security policy objectives. . . . Commentary and analysis should incorporate vigorous advocacy of current policy positions of the US Government. The Radio in the American Sector of Berlin (RIAS) will continue to broadcast to East Germany under the supervision of the Director, International Communication Agency. . . . Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), a private corporation funded by the congress and subject to oversight by the Board for International Broadcasting, will continue as an independent organization operating as a surrogate free radio for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. A new entity for broadcasting to Cuba, Radio Marti, is currently being established and will function in a manner analogous to RFE/RL. Both radios shall operate in a manner not inconsistent with the broad objectives of US foreign and national security policy. . . . [They] will undertake a major, long-term program of modernization and expansion over the period FY 84 to FY 89 affecting program-related as well as technical aspects of their operations.10

NSDD 77 on Public Diplomacy Management in a NSC Special Planning Group—January 1983. NSDD 77—Management of Public Diplomacy Relative to National Security, issued on January 14, 1983, was issued in parallel with NSDD 75 that set forth Reagan’s new Cold War “grand strategy.” NSDD 77 establishes the Administration’s public diplomacy objectives and structure in support of U.S. national security policy, and assigns the NSC Advisor and NSC staff key coordination roles. Excerpts follow:

[Book pg. 377]

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