PART IV -- REAGAN'S FREEDOM STRATEGY AGAINST SOVIET IMPERIALISM, ESPIONAGE, AND "ACTIVE MEASURES' INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS

Chapter 20 - Taking on the Intelligence Wars and the Soviet Espionage Threat

Summary

A comprehensive multi-chapter review of the Cold War intelligence wars is beyond the scope of this book as much information and many documents remain classified. But in implementing a new Cold War strategy, Ronald Reagan and his national security team were acutely aware that the Soviet regime historically relied on a vast network of intelligence operations to maintain the Communist Party’s totalitarian control at home and to extend its anti-democratic ideology, influence, and militant imperial reach abroad (see Chapters 2 through 6). It was, therefore, a strategic priority for the Reagan Administration to reorganize and rebuild deeply eroded U.S. intelligence capabilities to counter intensified Soviet espionage and deception operations, notably including the Soviet military’s covert programs of “maskirovka” and the KGB’s “active measures” operations including “dezinformatsiya.” Under Reagan, the U.S. rebuilt and redirected institutional strengths in human intelligence, counter-intelligence, and competitive analysis and including support of anti-Communist resistance movements. In areas of public information and public diplomacy Reagan ended U.S. self-censorhip diplomacy that failed to expose the Soviet’s duplicity. Such exposure through public diplomacy (while protecting sensitive U.S. sources and methods) was critical to changing Cold War terms in favor of defending and proactively promoting Western principles of truth, peace, and freedom. The Soviets had not expected, and could not defeat, this long dormant instrument of “soft power” that contributed critically to the ultimate collapse of the Soviet ideology, regime and empire.

Soviet Intelligence History. In November 1917, Lenin organized a coup against a new Russian Provisional Government coalition that had forced the Czar’s peaceful abdication six months earlier and was leading Russia on a pluralistic democratic path the Czar had accepted. Lenin’s “Marxist-Leninist” Soviet Union reject-

[Book pg. 483]

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